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A Longitudinal Study of Depression, Fatigue, and Sleep Disturbances as a Symptom Cluster in Women With Breast Cancer
Sheau-Yan Ho, Kelly J. Rohan, Justin Parent, Felice A. Tager, Paula S. McKinley
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Volume 49, Issue 4, April 2015, Pages 707-715
Editors’ comment: Dr Ricardo Caponero
An important change in the way we approach cancer symptoms is not to treat each of them singly but to see a cluster of symptoms and do a broad therapeutic approach. This paper grouped some of the most frequent symptoms in breast cancer women.
A number of cancer therapy agents are cleared by the kidney and may affect renal function, including cytotoxic chemotherapy agents, molecular targeted therapies, analgesics, antibiotics, radiopharmaceuticals and radiation therapy, and bone-targeted therapies. Many of these agents can be nephrotoxic, including targeted cancer therapies. The incidence, severity, and pattern of renal toxicities may vary according to the respective target of the drug. Here, we review the renal effects associated with a selection of currenty approved targeted cancer therapies, directed to vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF receptor(s) (VEGF/VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2), BRAF, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), programmed cell death protein-1 or its ligand (PD-1/PDL-1), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The early diagnosis and prompt treatment of these renal alterations are essential in the daily practice where molecular targeted therapies have a definitive role in the armamentarium used in many cancers.